In today’s world, stress is a prominent issue. Feeling it or trying to alleviate it is the norm for most of us. How our bodies respond to imminent danger is what makes us feel stressed out. This step of the stress reaction, known as “alarm,” is there for a good reason. It prepares the body to deal with danger which is why it is there. It is only when the threat has passed that the body returns to normal operations. A chronic state of stress occurs when the body’s response to stress continues for an extended period. As time passes, it can cause significant harm to the body.
All of the body’s functions are controlled by the complicated network of glands that make and release hormones. It’s a complex, tightly controlled system that functions similarly to a thermostat. Because of excessive hormone production, the system shuts down in order to maintain a steady state. Hormone production increases when there is not enough hormone in the body.
Functioning of Adrenal Glands
The adrenal glands are the show stoppers regarding the body’s stress reaction. Adrenal glands are sometimes called suprarenal glands because their name implies “above the kidney.” There are two major sections to each adrenal gland: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The medulla is made up of nerve tissue, while the cortex is made up of glandular epithelial tissue.
In addition to mineralocorticoids (which regulate water and mineral balance), glucocorticoids (which regulate glucose levels), and gonadocorticoids, the cortex produces a variety of other hormones (adrenal sex hormones). The stress hormone cortisol is a glucocorticoid that is secreted later in the response.
Adrenaline and noradrenaline are produced by the medulla (NE). In the initial phase of the fight-or-flight response, epinephrine is the primary hormone interacting with the sympathetic nervous system. Epinephrine, like norepinephrine, is a neurotransmitter and an endocrine hormone in the human body. The sympathetic nervous system’s primary neurotransmitter is norepinephrine.
The amygdala, a component of the limbic system involved in memory and emotion, sounds the first alert when your senses detect something harmful or threatening. When the hypothalamus, an important player in the endocrine system, sees the beacon, it stimulates the sympathetic nervous system. The adrenal glands then release epinephrine and norepinephrine into the bloodstream as a result of this signal.
Epinephrine aids the body in responding to a variety of threats. Breathing becomes faster as the lungs’ bronchioles open up, and more oxygen can be taken in. Pulse and blood pressure increase as a result of the heart beating quicker. So that the muscles and the brain can get the amount of blood (and oxygen) they need to perform at their best, all of this must be carried out. As the body prepares to fight or flee, dilation of the pupils and increased muscle tension are two other physiological changes that occur.
The pituitary gland releases ACTH, which travels through the circulation and tells the adrenal glands to generate cortisol. Because cortisol signals multiple organs to make changes that affect blood glucose levels, the body can stay on high alert for an extended time.
Increased gluconeogenesis (the synthesis of glucose from glycogen) occurs when cortisol levels are high. The breakdown of lipids into glycerol and fatty acids will increase due to increased cortisol levels in adipose tissue. Because of a rise in cortisol, the pancreas lowers insulin levels and raises glucagon levels.
The Stress Hormone, Cortisol
Cortisol, a steroid hormone, is our body’s most crucial stress hormone since it aids in our ability to fight or flee. You’re primed to respond primarily by cortisol, for example, when you see a predator. Besides these, cortisol affects many other physiological processes, such as blood sugar regulation, control of the water and salt equilibrium in the body, bone production, and many more.
What Is the Source of Cortisol?
The adrenal glands, which reside just above the kidneys, are the primary source of this hormone. Other hormones produced mainly in the brain control its production. The hypothalamus and pituitary glands control most hormones in the endocrine system.
When something goes awry with the cortisol production process, what happens?
The brain can control cortisol production from the adrenal gland in normal circumstances. However, systems do go haywire from time to time. Illnesses such as Cushing’s syndrome and Addison’s disease cause excess cortisol production, whereas conditions such as autoimmune adrenal insufficiency cause insufficient production. In some circumstances, they are severe medical disorders that necessitate the use of medication or surgery.
What is the relationship between cortisol levels and psychological stress?
A variety of reasons can cause chronically increased cortisol. Sleep deprivation and mood disorders, such as depression and physical or mental sickness, are two examples of these dangers”. Chronic stress’s long-term consequences on cortisol levels are little understood. Chronic psychological stress does not appear to have the same hazards as acute stress.
What other hormones are influenced by psychological or personal stress?
When a person is under stress, some hormones are more likely to be affected. Stress can interfere with the production of hormones in the hypothalamus that control the release of sex hormones, such as oestrogen and testosterone, in the hypothalamus. Stress can disrupt the menstrual cycle, which can lead to fertility issues if left unchecked. Men who are under a lot of stress are also more likely to have problems getting pregnant. Thyroid hormone production is diminished when the thyroid gland is under stress, such as while dealing with a life-threatening illness.
Are there side effects from stress on my hormones?
It’s increasingly hard to avoid feeling stressed out in today’s world. Because the endocrine system and the hormones that are part of it are so adept at dealing with stress, the body’s hormones are able to regulate themselves on their own. Infertility is one of the more significant problems that can arise as a result of disrupting the hormone balance caused by chronic stress. Consult your family doctor or an endocrinologist if you have any concerns.